Geoffrey M. Jacquez
BioMedWare, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Position Statement
Curriculum Vitae
Address

Position Statement

Placing the Horse in Front of the Cart:  Spatial Analysis and GIS

Background and Terminology:

I assume `spatial analysis’  means spatial statistical analysis, rather than GIS operations such as overlay, buffering and etc. that are called `spatial analysis’ by some practioners.  I assume spatial pattern in a variable/map is the consequence of past physical, biological, sociological, and geological processes.  Finally, I assume our goal as scientists is to increase our understanding of these forces, and we analyse spatial pattern in order to infer their past action.  The contribution of spatial statistical analysis is to (1) detect spatial pattern, and (2) determine whether a pattern is significant and thus merits formulation of explanatory hypotheses.

Problem Statement:

GIS technology leads the science, and arcane software design considerations underlying legacy GIS often dictate the scientific issues we address.  Spatial statistical analysis in GIS is an afterthought, and it therefore seems reasonable to suppose that current  GIS are not particularly good platforms for incorporating tools for spatial statistical analysis.  What if we went through the GIS design process using spatial statistical analysis of geodata as the objective?  Such a Spatial Statistical GIS (SS-GIS) might incorporate the following characteristics:

The ability to construct `designer’ spatial statistics appropriate for the available data and the particular problem at hand.
Spatial queries appropriate for quantifying proximity metrics (e.g. spatial weights) required by spatial statistics.
Mechanisms for modeling location uncertainty  and for quantifying the spatial sampling space.
Spatial Monte Carlo methods supporting restricted null hypotheses other than Complete Spatial Randomness (CSR).

Statement of Interest:

My colleagues and I have developed a prototype SS-GIS (called Gamma) that addresses these concerns.  It uses a flexible mathematical form (called the gamma product) for representing spatial statistical tests, and spatial Monte Carlo techniques that provide a common mechanism for assessing statistical significance.  Monte Carlo randomization may be restricted to account for spatial dependency (e.g. spatial autocorrelation under the null model).  An equation editor allows one to create custom multivariate data metrics (e.g. calculated from several attributes).  Three location models (point, polygon, population) may be used to specify the spatial sampling space, and to model location uncertainty.  I am interested in attending the meeting to share these results with other researchers; to learn of recent advances; and to put in my two (or three) cents in the `stock-taking’ that is the purpose of the workshop.   This workshop has the promise of identifying design requirements of an `SS-GIS’ focused on meeting researchers needs.  Will we finally put the horse before the cart and have the science lead the software?

Curriculum Vitae

 Education

1989  Ph.D. State University of New York at Stony Brook, Department of Ecology and Evolution; research on geographic statistics and spatial analysis.   Dissertation committee: Robert R. Sokal (chair), F. James Rohlf, Akira Okubo and Neal Oden

1983  M.S. University of Michigan, in Natural Resource Policy and Law; research on the optimal allocation of life history strategies.   Committee: Bobbi S. Low (chair) and Stuart Marquis

1977  B.S. University of Michigan, concentrations in biology and the physical sciences

Honors

1996  International Who's Who in Information Technology
1995  Who's Who in Science and Technology
1988  Elected Associate Member, Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society, Stony Brook chapter.
1987  EDUCOM Distinguished Software Award. For Ramas/a, a risk assessment and population modeling program.
1983  Elected to The Explorers Club, New York City, New York.
1983  General University Scholarship, The University of Michigan.
1977  General University Scholarship, The University of Michigan.[PB]

Associations

Association of American Geographers
American Association for the Advancement of Science
American Statistical Association
International Society for Environmental Epidemiology
Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society
Society for Epidemiologic Research

Statement of research interests

Dr. Jacquez develops and applies spatial statistics to elucidate underlying space-time processes in the environmental, biological and health sciences. The basic problem is to determine causes that produce an observed spatial pattern, and Jacquez's research includes applications in disease clustering, epidemiology, environmental monitoring and population genetics.

Positions held

1990-present  President.  BioMedware Incorporated.  Research in GIS and spatial statistics, environmental epidemiology, environmental monitoring and biostatistics.  Develop novel spatial analysis software applications.  Currently Principal Investigator on 3 grants from the National Cancer Institute to develop spatial statistical methods and software.

1985-1989  Research Assistant.  Department of Ecology and Evolution, State University of New York at Stony Brook.  With Dr. Robert R. Sokal, research on spatial analysis in ecology and evolutionary biology, including 2-dimensional spectral analysis, spatial autocorrelation analysis and the development of mapping techniques.

1984-1985  Research Assistant.  Department of Ecology and Evolution, State University of New York at Stony Brook.  With Dr. F. James  Rohlf.   The comparison and evaluation of environmental monitoring variables. Funded by NOAA grant SBO:10 to F. J. Rohlf.

1983  Teaching Assistant.  Department of Ecology and Evolution, State University of New York at Stony Brook.   Teach Introductory Biology (Bio 151) laboratory course (fall term). Teaching Assistant for Intermediate Physiology (Bio 352, winter term).

1983  Investigator. Nepal Alpine Zone Research Project.  As ecologist on multidisciplinary team performing base-line environmental assessment along the Nepal-Tibetan border.  Expedition sponsored by the Explorers Club and The National Geographic Society.

1981-1982  Computer Programmer.  School of Natural Resources.  With Dr. Bobbi S. Low.  Implement and evaluate models of life history strategies in computer-simulated virtual environments.

1979-1980  Field Biologist.  Zoology Department, Arizona State University.  With Dr. Robert Ohmart.  Census vegetation, avifauna and reptilian communities as part of the Lower Colorado River Research Project.  Design and conduct statistical analyses of field data quantifying riparian communities.

Grants and Contracts

Note:  Only grants on which Jacquez served as Principal Investigator are listed

1998- `Software for Geographic Boundary Analysis'.  Phase 2 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant #R43 CA69864-02 from the National Cancer Institute (NCI).

1998- `Biostatistical Methods in Environmental Epidemiology'. Phase II Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Research Grant #R41 CA64979-02 from the NCI.  In collaboration with Dr. Mark Wilson, University of Michigan, Co-PI.

1997- `Software and Statistical Methods for Uncertain Locations'. Phase II SBIR #2 R44 CA65366-02 from the National Cancer Institute (NCI).

1997 `Software for Geographic Boundary Analysis'.  Phase 1 SBIR #1 R43 CA69864-01A1 from the NCI.

1995-1996 `Biostatistical Methods in Environmental Epidemiology'. Phase I Small Business Technology Transfer Research Grant #R41 CA64979-01 from the NCI. In collaboration with Lance Waller,  University of Minnesota, Co-PI.

1995-1996 `Disease Cluster Tests for Uncertain Health Event Data'. Phase I SBIR Grant #1 R43 CA65366-A01 from the NCI.

1993-1994 `Statistics and Computing in Disease Clustering'.  Conference Grant #1 R13 CA64044-01 from the NCI, with cofunding from EPRI and John Wiley & Sons.

1991-1993 `Methods in Environmental Epidemiology'.  Case studies and methods development grant from the Electric Power Research Institute.

1991-1993 `Statistical Detection of Cancer Clusters'. Phase II SBIR #2 R44 CA50800-02 from the NCI.

1990-1991 `The Spatial Analysis of Hospital Admissions and Air Pollution in Ontario, Canada'.  Funded by a contract from the Electric Power Research Institute.

1990 `Statistical Detection of Cancer Clusters'. Phase I SBIR Grant #1 R43 CA50800-01A1 from the NCI.

1989 `Sources of Bias in Regressions of Lake Acid Neutralizing Capacity'.  Department of Energy contract #SC922-95 from Martin Marietta.

Current Consultant Activities

Member, Board of Directors, ICON Inc., Tucson Arizona

Consultant, U.S. Agency for International Development, Environmental Health Project.

Consultant, Colorado State University, on the program project grant `Integrated Research on Hazardous Waste Chemical Mixtures' from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Raymond S. H. Yang, Principal Investigator.

Publications

Jacquez, G. M., J. A. Jacquez. 1998.  Credibility: A new approach to disease clustering when locations are uncertain (Eds. A. Lawson). John Wiley (In Press).

Oden, N., G. M. Jacquez, R. Grimson. 1998.  Response to T. Tango on Ipop (Letter).  Statistics in Medicine (In Press).

Fortin, M. J., G. M. Jacquez.  1998.  Randomization tests and spatially autocorrelated data. Ecology (In Press).

Fortin, M. J., G. M. Jacquez.  1998.  Randomization tests in ecology : Introduction.  Ecology (In Press).

Jacquez, G. M. 1998. GIS as an Enabling Technology In GIS and Health (Eds. T. Gatrell and M. Loytonen), Taylor and Francis, London.

Jacquez, G. M, L. A. Waller.  1997.  “The Effect of Uncertain Locations on Disease Cluster Statistics” In Spatial Accuracy Assessment (Eds. H. T. Mowerer). Arbor Press.

Jacquez, G. M.  1997.  Medical Geography and Disease Clustering. In 1997 McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology.  McGraw-Hill, New York (To appear).

Jacquez, G. M.  1996.  A k-nearest neighbor test for space-time interaction. Statistics in Medicine, 15: 1935-1949.

Jacquez, G. M., R. Grimson, L. Kheifets, L. Waller and D. Wartenberg.  1996. Introduction to the special issue on statistics and computing in disease clustering.  Statistics in Medicine, 15 (7/8/9): 681-682.

Jacquez, G. M.  1996.  Disease cluster statistics for imprecise space-time locations.  Statistics in Medicine, 15 (7/8/9):873-885.

Oden, N. L., G. M. Jacquez and R. Grimson.  1996.  Realistic power simulations compare point- and area-based disease cluster tests.  Statistics in Medicine, 15 (7/8/9):783-806.  Jacquez, G. M.  1996.  Statistical software for the clustering of health events.  Statistics in Medicine, 15 (7/8/9):951-952 (software description).

Jacquez, G. M., L. Waller, R. Grimson and D. Wartenberg.  1996. The analysis of disease clusters Part 1:  State of the art.  Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 17: 319-327.

Jacquez, G. M., R. Grimson, L. Waller,  and D. Wartenberg.  1996. The analysis of disease clusters Part 2: Introduction to techniques.  Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 17: 385-397.

Jacquez, G. M., and D. T. Patten.  1996. Chesneya nubigena on a glacial moraine: A case of facilitation in primary succession?  Mountain Research and Development, 16: 265-273.

Fortin, M. J., P. Drapeau and G. M. Jacquez.  1996.  Quantification of the spatial co-occurrences of ecological boundaries. Oikos 77: 51-60.

Jacquez, G. M. 1995.  The map comparison problem:  Tests for the overlap of geographic boundaries.  Statistics in Medicine, 14: 2343-2361.

Waller, L. A. and G. M. Jacquez.  1995. Disease models implicit in statistical tests of disease clustering.  Epidemiology, 6: 584-590.

Jacquez, G. M.  1994.  Cuzick and Edwards test when exact locations are unknown.   American Journal of Epidemiology, 140: 58-64.

Jacquez, G. M., J. Ziskowski and F. James Rohlf.  1994.  Criteria for the evaluation of alternative environmental monitoring variables:   Theory and application using winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and Dover sole (Microstomus pacificus).  Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 30: 275-290.

Jacquez, G. M.  1993.  Introduction to the special issue on statistics and computing in disease clustering.  Statistics in Medicine, 12: 1751.

Jacquez, G. M.  1993.  The statistical description of disease clusters. Statistics in Medicine, 12: 1967-68 (software  description).

Jacquez, G. M. and L. Kheifets.  1993.  Synthetic cancer variables and the construction of synthetic cancer risk maps.  Statistics in Medicine, 12: 1931-1942.

Sokal, R. R., G. M. Jacquez, N. L. Oden, D. DiGiovanni, A. B. Falsetti, E. McGee and B. A. Thomson.  1993.  Genetic relationships of European populations reflect their ethnohistorical affinities.   American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 91: 55-70.

Sokal, R. R. and G. M. Jacquez.  1991.  Testing inferences about microevolutionary processes by means of spatial autocorrelation analysis. Evolution, 45:  152-168.

Barbujani, G., G. M. Jacquez and L. Ligi.  1990.  Diversity of some gene frequencies in European and Asian populations.  VI.  Genetic boundaries. American Journal of Human Genetics, 47: 867-875.

Jacquez, G. M.  1989.  Implications of Spatial Autocorrelation in Genetic and Lake Chemistry Data.   Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Ecology and Evolution, State University of New York at Stony Brook. 225 pp.

Jacquez, G. M. and L. Ginzburg.  1989.  RAMAS: Teaching population dynamics, ecological risk assessment and conservation biology.  Academic Computing 4: 26-56.

Sokal, R. R., G. M. Jacquez and M. C. Wooten. 1989. Spatial autocorrelation analysis of migration and selection. Genetics, 121: 845-855.

Ferson, F., P. Downey, P. Klerks, M. Weissburg, I. Kroot, S. Stewart, G. Jacquez, J. Ssemakula, R. Malenky and K. Anderson. 1986. Competing Reviews or Why do Connell and Schoener Disagree?  American Naturalist, 127: 571-576.

Jacquez, G. M.  1983.  The Effect of Predictability, Constancy and Contingency on Selected Aspects of Life History Strategies:  Analysis for Policy Making.  Masters Thesis, The University of Michigan.  100 pp.


Address

Geoffrey M. Jacquez
BioMedware
516 North State Street
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-1236
Telephone: (313) 913-1098
Fax: (313) 913-2201
Email: Jacquez@Biomedware.com
http://ic.net/~biomware


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